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印度网友问:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?

2022-03-08 19:09 分类:值得一看
站点名称:印度网友问:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多? 网站分类:值得一看 累计点击:399人次 站点域名: 网站语言:简体中文 收录日期:2022-03-08 百度收录: SEO查询:立即查看 百度权重:百度权重图标 移动权重:百度移动权重图标 搜狗权重:搜狗权重图标 谷歌权重:谷歌权重图标

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近年来,中国商品行销印度市场,受到当地人的热烈欢迎,市场占有率节节攀升,印度网友在海外论坛网站Quora上提问道:中国的制造业生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?这引起各国网友的围观和热议,专家网友纷纷撰文作答。

印度网友问:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?

问题:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?

印度网友问:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?

美国专家Vikas Joshi的回答

I am a member of the Deloitte team, an international accounting firm. Our team did a study on "survey of business regulatory environment in manufacturing industry in India - state level assessment". We visited 28 states and discussed their problems with hundreds of industrialists.

我是国际会计事务所—德勤团队的一员,我们团队做了一项关于“印度制造业商业监管环境调查——州层面评估”的研究。我们走访了28个州,并与数百名实业家讨论了他们面临的问题。

Accenture, Bain, KPMG and Ernst & Young also made similar research and reports. Ernst & Young's investigation work in Rajasthan is particularly excellent, and Accenture's report is also a good summary.

埃森哲、贝恩、毕马威和安永也做了类似的调研和报告,安永在拉贾斯坦邦的调查工作尤其出色,埃森哲的报告也是一个很好的总结。

I would like to answer your question briefly and state in advance that the views expressed below are my own, not Deloitte's.

我简单地回答一下你的问题,事先声明,下面表达的观点是我自己的,而不是德勤的。

Poor infrastructure: it is well known that this greatly increases the cost of doing business. For example, shipping containers from Singapore to Chennai are cheaper and faster than road / rail containers from Chennai to Mumbai.

基础设施差:人所共知,这极大地增加了做生意的成本。例如,从新加坡到钦奈的海运集装箱比从钦奈到孟买的公路/铁路集装箱更便宜、更快捷。

Excessive pricing in key industries: populist governments (including central and state governments) cross subsidize consumers by charging higher prices to industries.

关键行业过高的定价:民粹主义政府(包括中央政府和州政府)通过向行业收取更高的价格来交叉补贴消费者。

For example, the cost of commercial railway transportation in India is the highest, but the railway ticket in India is the cheapest, and the industrial electricity price in India remains at a very high level to offset the loss caused by the provision of electricity subsidies to residential consumers.

例如:印度的商用铁路运输成本是最高的,但印度的铁路客票是最便宜的,以及印度的工业电价保持在极高的水平,以抵消在向居民消费者提供电力补贴造成的损失。

High land cost: India's high population density means less land per capita. Land is the only source of income for most people, so they are not willing to give up land.

土地成本高:印度的高人口密度意味着人均拥有的土地更少,土地是大多数人唯一的收入来源,因此他们并不愿意放弃土地。

Uneducated farmers do not have the skills to get high paying jobs, so they can only support their families through a large area of land. Most of India is fertile land that can produce multi season crops, which makes land more valuable to farmers.

没有受过教育的农民因为不具备获得高薪工作的技能,他们只能通过大片的土地来养家糊口。印度大部分地区是肥沃的土地,可以生产多季农作物,这使得土地对农民来说更加宝贵。

In addition, the collusion and insider trading between landlords and politicians have further increased the cost of land.

此外,地主和政客的勾连和内幕交易进一步增加了土地成本。

Lack of skills: although India has a large population, the average level of education and skills is very low. Only a small number of people have received appropriate vocational training. Therefore, most of the population is unemployed.

技能不足:印度虽然人口众多,但平均教育水平和技能水平非常低,只有一小部分人接受过适当的职业培训,因此,大部分人口处于无业状态。

This makes the wages of those with skills very high. The wages of experienced welders in steel plants are 90000 rupees, much higher than engineers, and the wages of experienced long-distance truck drivers are 40000 rupees, much higher than entry-level engineers.

这使得那些身怀技能的人工资非常之高,钢铁厂有经验的焊工的工资为9万卢比,比工程师要高得多,有经验的长途卡车司机的工资为4万卢比,同样比入门级工程师高得多。

Perverse legal system: the labor dispute law is the most regressive and regressive labor law in the world. This Law stipulates that if your production unit has more than 100 workers, no matter what the reason, you can't fire anyone, even if the workers sleep, slouch and don't even do any work. Therefore, when the employees don't work well, the company will pay a high price.

倒行逆施的法律制度:《劳资纠纷法》是世界上最倒退、最倒退的劳动法。这部法律规定,如果你的生产单位有100多名工人,无论什么原因,你都不能解雇任何人,即使工人睡觉磨洋工甚至不做任何工作,因此,当员工不好好工作时,公司会因此付出高昂的代价。

Credit cost: due to high inflation (especially during uPA 2), India's interest rate has remained high for a long time, putting great pressure on enterprise capital turnover.

信贷成本:由于高通胀(特别是在UPA 2期间),印度的利率长期居高不下,给企业资金周转带来巨大的压力。

Corruption: in India, setting up or running an industrial sector is a nightmare compared to setting up a software company, and all state departments require bribes in exchange for administrative licenses.

腐败:在印度,与建立一家软件公司相比,建立或运营一个工业部门是一场噩梦,所有州政府部门都要求贿赂以换取行政许可。

The most serious violators are the pollution control department (especially for "orange" / "red" highly polluting industries), the labor department and the tax department.

最严重的违规者是污染控制部门(尤其是针对“橙色”/“红色”类高污染行业)、劳工部门和税务部门。

You even need to pay bribes to pass the boiler safety inspection and get the measurement approved! The inspectors of these departments never even enter the factory production workshop. They will go directly to your office to "solve".

你甚至需要行贿才能通过锅炉的安全检查,使得度量指标获得批准!这些部门的检查员甚至从不进入工厂生产车间,他们会直接到你的办公室来“解决”。

Tax system: the large amount of taxes levied by the central, state and local governments means that each enterprise has to fill out dozens of forms, submit dozens of returns, pay the fees of Chartered Accountants each time, travel back and forth dozens of times to visit the tax department, and bribe dozens of different officials.

税收制度:中央、州和地方征收的大量税款意味着每个企业要填写几十份表格,提交几十份申报表,每次都要支付特许会计师的费用,来回跑几十次到访税务部门,以及向几十名不同的官员行贿。

In addition, it increases the cost of road transportation due to the inspection of national borders and bribery.

此外,由于国家边境的检查和受贿,它还增加了道路运输成本。

Efficiency: China can efficiently relocate entire villages and build roads / factories. They can solve the problem of benefit distribution as efficiently as possible without any friction.

效率:中国可以高效地搬迁整个村庄,修建公路/工厂,他们可以在没有任何摩擦的情况下尽可能高效地解决利益分配问题。

They can efficiently pass a new law or amend an old law on the premise of conforming to laws and procedures, so as to make the examination and approval of enterprises easier. In the Indian system, there are protests, debates, debates, investigations, committees and political opposition, which will slow everything down.

他们可以在合乎法律和程序地前提下高效通过一项新法律或修改一项旧法律,使企业的审批事项更加轻松。而在印度的制度中,有抗议、辩论、争论、调查、委员会和政治反对派,这些会拖慢一切。

For example, POSCO is the largest foreign direct investment in India's history. Due to protests, they still didn't get the land for construction 10 years later.

比如浦项制铁是印度历史上最大的一次外国直接投资,由于抗议,10年后他们仍然没有拿到土地进行施工建设。

For example, they often harass the political and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) until they are basically related to their projects.

再比如环保等非政府组织(NGO)基本上与政治黑手党有关,他们经常骚扰各个企业地项目,直到他们和他们的政治主人得到丰厚地报酬。

There are other factors: (a) slow legal systems often make contracts difficult to enforce. (b) Obtaining construction permits in India is one of the slowest and most corrupt processes in the world. (c) In some states, obtaining industrial electricity takes more than three months of bribes. For more details, see the World Bank report on business convenience.

还有其他因素:(a)缓慢的法律制度往往导致合同难以执行。(b) 在印度获得建筑许可证是世界上最慢、最腐败的过程之一。(c) 在一些州,获得工业用电要经过3个月以上周期的贿赂。更多详细信息,可以参见世界银行关于经商便利性的报告。

Many states are promoting simplification like "single window cleaning" - basically replacing about 20 forms that need to be submitted before with a single form to start a new manufacturing business. But unless these factors improve, India's manufacturing costs will still be much higher than China's.

许多州都在进行“单一窗口清理”之类的简政宣传——基本上是以单一表格,替代之前需要提交地大约20个表格,以开始一项新的制造业务。但除非上述因素得到改善,否则印度的制造成本仍将远远高于中国。


印度网友问:中国制造业的生产成本凭什么要比印度低得多?

印度网友Sagar Jain的回答

Some of my relatives operate manufacturing plants in Tamil Nadu, a relatively developed state. My in laws have also recently begun to import goods from China and become distributors of Chinese manufacturers in India. Here are my views.

我的一些亲戚在泰米尔纳德邦经营制造厂,泰米尔纳德邦是一个相对发达的州,我的姻亲最近也开始从中国进口商品,成为中国厂家在印度地经销商,下面谈谈我的看法。

Convenience and availability of power: the power supply in India is not all-weather. In Coimbatore and other industrial areas, there is only about eight hours of power supply every day, which means that the machine can only be idle for 16 hours, which wastes production capacity and increases costs.

电力地便利性和可用性: 印度的电力供应不是全天候的,在哥印拜陀和其他工业区,每天只有大约八个小时的电力供应,这意味着机器只能闲置16个小时,既浪费了产能也增加了成本。

Power cost: in India, we have a lot of power subsidy projects for farmers, because farmers are the huge political foundation of regional political parties, so that power companies either go bankrupt or charge huge fees for the industry, and the power cost is often even higher than that of some developed countries.

电力成本:在印度,我们对农民的电力补贴项目非常之多,因为农民是地区政党的巨大政治基础,以至于电力公司要么破产,要么对行业收取巨额费用,电力成本往往甚至高于一些发达国家。

Labor cost: it is extremely difficult to obtain good factory labor in Tamil Nadu and other places, and technicians have entered high paid industries.

劳动力成本:在泰米尔纳德邦等地获得良好的工厂劳动力变得极其困难,技术人员已经步入高薪行业。

After we recruit labor from the north, after working for a period of time, they usually leave without saying hello and move away, and they are extremely lack of skills and knowledge. At the same wage level, such as $250, the quality of labor recruited in China is much higher than that in India.

在我们从北方招收劳动力后,在工作一段时间之后,他们通常会不打招呼就离职搬走了,而且极度缺乏技能和知识,同样的工资水平,比如250美元,在中国招收的劳动力质量要远远高于印度。

Transportation cost: in terms of land transportation, considering the poor road conditions, it may take a week or even longer to transport from northern India to southern India.

运输成本:就陆路运输来说,考虑到路况不佳,从印度北部运到印度南部可能需要一周甚至更长时间。

Sometimes, shipping from Shenzhen is faster and cheaper than from Calcutta. Time is money. All these delays will increase your cost. If it arrives within two days, I can sell it immediately instead of waiting for two months in vain (which will increase the cost of warehousing, interest, etc.).

有时,从深圳发货比从加尔各答要更快、更便宜,时间就是金钱,所有这些延误都会增加你的成本。如果两天内到货,我可以立即卖掉它,而不是白白等两个月(这样会增加仓储、利息等成本)。

Bureaucracy prevails: it is very expensive to open a new factory or handle any business, because it will waste a lot of time and money.

官僚主义盛行:开办一家新工厂或办理任何一项业务都是非常昂贵的,因为这将浪费大量的时间和金钱。

You need to fill out a lot of forms and press a lot of fingerprints in order to operate legally.

你需要填写大量的表格,摁大量的手印,获批之后,才能合法经营。

Transportation between States is also often delayed, so the industry has vigorously promoted the collection of goods and services tax, and corruption, delay and inefficiency will continue unless most Indian laws, especially those on factories and labor, are repealed.

各州之间的运输也经常延迟,因此该行业大力推动征收商品及服务税,除非大多数印度法律——特别是关于工厂和劳工的法律——被废除,否则腐败、拖延和效率低下的情况将继续存在。

Indians have always opposed the existence of large enterprises and industries. They believe that this will harm their interests. Most of them adhere to the outdated laws supporting small household handicrafts, because such laws have formulated many preferential policies for small and micro enterprises, but these small enterprises are too small to compete with China's large-scale production, which leads to the development of clothing, textile and other fields, High costs in India.

印度人向来反对大企业、大产业的存在,他们认为这将损害他们的利益,他们大多坚持支持小型家庭手工业的过时法律,因为这种法律为小微企业制定了诸多优惠政策,但这些小企业规模太小,不足以同中国的规模化生产相竞争,这就导致了在成衣纺织等领域,印度成本的高企。

If India wants to compete with China, we must thoroughly reform all the economic laws we have implemented since 1947 - taxes, labor, factories, etc. otherwise, not to mention China, Vietnam and Bangladesh, we have no cost advantage.

如果印度想要与中国竞争,我们必须彻底改革我们自1947年以来实施的所有经济法律——税收、劳工、工厂等等,否则,不要说中国,就是越南和孟加拉国,我们都没有成本优势。

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