The degree of development of a country has little to do with the social system, but what makes China stronger than India?
China and India are hard to compare! There are many dynamic variables that are difficult to measure. Geopolitics has changed the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the two countries in an unpredictable way on a time scale.
We can start with commonness.
• China and India are the two most populous countries on earth, and their combined population accounts for more than one third of the total human population!
• everything involving China and India is huge. Food consumption, energy demand, trade balance, military strength, political strength, diplomatic strength and soft power are among the highest in the world.
• China and India are the two oldest civilizations on earth. They experienced a long feudal period. For a long time, they were the richest, most populous and most advanced society at that time. These empires rose and fell, and then rose again.
• they are all countries with a vast territory. In terms of territorial area, China is the third largest country in the world and India is the seventh largest country in the world.
• China's nominal GDP ranks second in the world and its purchasing power parity GDP ranks first in the world, exceeding US $27 trillion. India ranks fifth in nominal GDP and third in purchasing power parity GDP, exceeding US $10 trillion. Both China and India are leading economic powers.
• both countries occupy rich land resources and are at the core of the region. China is located in the center of Eurasia, and its policies in this field can have a global impact.
India is an ancient bridge between the East and the west of the world, and its status has been maintained for thousands of years. India's coastal dominance, a maritime traffic corridor across the Indian Ocean, has become one of the busiest and richest business districts in the world, which has further consolidated its influence.
So, since the two are so similar in many fields, what makes China stronger than India?
China has a special institutional advantage, which enables China to carry out major projects and projects more efficiently than India. The huge decisions are often efficient and accurate, such as the Daxing airport project and the excellent performance during the COVID-19 epidemic.
India's speed and scale are not as fast as China's, which gives China a late mover advantage in many cases, and can accurately control the speed and scope of its development, so as to catch up with the development level of many rivals.
In most cases, India's decisions are made by parliamentary game and supported by some voters. Therefore, the decision-making may be more chaotic and time-consuming, which may harm the interests of some people.
China's military strength is much stronger than India's, and its budget is more than three times that of India. This military strength, coupled with China's stronger economic foundation and deeper technical capabilities, enables China to give full play to its influence in the Asia Pacific region and even the world.
China is the fifth largest member of the United Nations Security Council. Its defense budget is close to $200 billion. India, which has 1.4 million national defense forces and a budget of more than $73 billion in fiscal year 2020, can be said to be nothing compared. However, both countries have nuclear weapons and millions of field troops.
China has the world's largest industrial system, known as the "world factory". China has moved from backward to leading. It occupies a leading position in almost all manufacturing fields such as shipbuilding. Its huge infrastructure construction capacity is unmatched by any other country.
India simply cannot compare with China's industrial, financial or infrastructure capabilities. Only Europe as a whole, or the United States, can compete with China in this field.
Even with the full support of Finance and technology from Japan, India can only compete in such sub industries, but this can only be achieved when Japan's technology, finance and economy keep pace with India. Obviously, this is impossible.
China's military science and technology has developed rapidly, and hypersonic weapon experiments have been successful repeatedly. They have the ability to quickly transfer the entire missile regiment from one theater to another, enabling them to respond to rapid force emergencies.
India has not invested in such a large ballistic missile arsenal, so it cannot carry out the same level of force projection in this category.
Although India has invested a lot of money in Anti Ballistic Missile and anti satellite weapon capabilities, it is a defense capability rather than a power projection capability. In the short term, India cannot really protect itself from ballistic missile attacks with existing defense measures.
China is investing heavily in robots and artificial intelligence and has become a world leader in this field. Many pending technological innovations may be driven by artificial intelligence and robotics, so China is sure to make large-scale investment in this field to meet long-term challenges.
Compared with China, India's investment in such future technologies is insignificant, and India is more concerned with infrastructure and job creation than cutting-edge technology.
Although India is a major player in the fields of computer, ites services and technology, and it has proved its ability to manufacture supercomputers, including operating systems in the gigaflop category, the technology and funds in these fields are often controlled by Japan and Western countries, and India has no autonomy at all.
China is also a pioneer in the field of quantum communication. It has built the world's first operational national quantum communication network, which gives China a leading edge in the field of anti hacker communication.
China takes the lead in this field, but India is a powerful country in the field of electronic warfare. From sporadic public reports, it has some ongoing confidential research in the field of high-energy physics, which can make up for India's weakness in quantum communication.
Therefore, China is stronger than India in many aspects, but India also has its own advantages. These advantages are broad enough. India and China are destined to coexist as neighbors, civilized entities, friendly powers in some fields and competitors in other categories.
Time will tell us whether they move towards confrontation as hostile powers or reconciliation as neighbors. So far, this trend seems to be good for India and the world.